Archive for August, 2014

How To Teach Colours To Children With ASD

Tuesday, August 26th, 2014

Colour recognition is the ability to identify and name basic colours. Colour recognition is important in recognizing objects around us and it is a precursor to language in the context of naming and using adjectives. Recognizing colours or other general concepts like shapes, numbers, alphabets, etc. develops in a child in the order of sorting / matching, identifying, naming and generalizing, where, in the context of colour concepts,

Matching denotes the ability to match similar coloured objects
Identifying denotes the ability to identify a colour when it is named
Naming denotes the ability to name a colour when asked
Generalizing denotes the ability to understand the similarity of colours in varied objects


Initially, in teaching colour concepts, only one or two primary colours must be taught at all levels of matching, identification naming and generalization. To begin with teaching colour concepts, the child is given activities that involve matching. For example, collect objects of similar shape or size but different colours like yellow and red beads or yellow and red coins. Take two cups, one in yellow and one in red. To teach matching, the child is expected to drop the red coin in the red cup and the yellow coin in yellow cup. Encourage positive responses and correct the wrong attempts. Once the child masters this, include more colours like blue, green, black, white etc.

Generally, children tend to easily achieve this level of matching and parents would begin to proceed to next level- identification. But practically, the transition between matching and identification must be including another phase which involves matching of same colour with objects that are varied by size and shape. We, in our centre, took 15 children with varied cognitive abilities to teach colour concepts. Among them, 11 children could do matching of all primary colours efficiently but could not progress directly to identification.

After matching red and yellow coin in red and yellow cup respectively, the children (individually ) were instructed to pick red coin when named and drop in the red cup (this is identification). All of them were able to leave yellow coins and pick up red coin and drop in the red cup. But when red and yellow coins and red and yellow beads were mixed and presented, children were able to pick up red “coins” but not the red “beads” when instructed to pick up red. This implies that children paired the word “red” for only “red coins”. They could match colours for only those objects that are similar in shape or size. So, before moving to identification children must be trained to match colours of both similarly sized or shaped objects and differently sized or shaped objects.

Hence, the steps in matching would be:

1. From a group of red and yellow coins, match only red coins to the red cup
2. From a group of red and yellow coins and red and yellow beads match only red coins and red beads to the red cup
3. From a group of red and yellow coins, red and yellow beads, red and yellow balls, match only red coins, red beads, red balls to the red cup
4. Follow the above steps to all other colours

sorting and matching colours

sorting and matching colours




Once matching is achieved for all basic colours with varieties of objects, identification of colours can be taught. Here children will be presented with objects of varied colours and varied shapes/size and asked to identify the named colours.

Eg. 1. Present yellow bead and red ball and ask the child to pick up red
Eg. 2. Present red ball and yellow block and ask the child to pick up yellow.

Follow the same for all other colours. In identification, parents/teachers must name colours and child must be asked to repeat the naming during identification. This is the precursor of the next level – naming of colours. For example when the parent says “pick up red”, the child must say “red” when picking up red object. Here the child is learning to pair the name of the colour to the object.


In this level, the child must be asked to name the colour of the object for example when the parent says “what is the colour of the ball”, the child must say “red”. If this is not achieved, the child must again be taught identification.


This involves naming of colours that are fixed colours of objects. Example generalization involves the understanding that red is common for apple, tomato, pomegranate, blood, rose, etc. in this the child must be asked to list objects that are of red colour, yellow colour and so on.

Group Therapy At THULIR

Saturday, August 16th, 2014

For a child to be independent and successful in his/her social environment such as home, school, peer group, etc, the child must possess social skills like communicating, sharing, waiting, turn taking, apologizing, requesting, thanking, competing, being aware of other’s needs and having age appropriate play skills. In order to develop these skills in children receiving occupational therapy at our centre, we started conducting group sessions.

Four children, two boys and girls, aged between 5 and 7 years with similar cognitive levels were taken for group therapy. All four children (referred to be in group 1) were diagnosed under autism spectrum disorders, and specifically had sensory processing issues related to bilateral integration and sequencing, and three of them had tactile defensiveness.

At the level of initial assessment, children

• Were able orient to time, place and person,
• Were able to follow simple commands
• Knew basic concepts like colours, alphabets, numbers, shapes, categories of objects, etc and were going to mainstream school.
• Were not having social skills like, greeting others without prompt, listening to others, etc
• Had problems in maintaining eye contact
• Lacked group skills like waiting, taking turns, or play with peers,
• Were not able to accept or tolerate other children’s company.

Hence group therapy was planned carrying the above mentioned problems as goals which include one activity from each of the following categories.

1. Children were asked to greet each others, parents and therapists by names with eye contact

2. Warm up activities such as jumping on trampoline, breaking soap bubbles, tapping balls/balloons ,etc were given were children were expected to stay within the given boundaries which helps to develop tolerance to touch, were asked to give chance and wait for others turn which develops sharing and waiting.

3. Activities like holding hands and jumping across rope, jumping together within hoola loop, crossing over obstacles in a line, walking together inside lycra swing, doing animal walks like crab walk, bear walk, frog jump, etc, together in a line, were given. This helps to develop skills such as doing activities together in a group, tolerating other’s touch, waiting for others to complete their task and join the group, waiting for commands and control impulsivity..

4. Activities like singing rhymes, doing action imitations, spelling words, counting numbers, reciting alphabets, were given were each child was asked to perform these tasks in turns in front of other kids and parents. This helps to develop eye contact, reduce social hesitation, and improve self confidence.

5. Activities requiring exchange of puzzles or toys among each others were given to provide opportunities for verbal communication. Concepts such as “give me”, “take it”, “thank you” and “welcome” were taught.

6. Activities like target throwing, ball catching, board games with dice, actions on commands etc were given to develop game concepts in children.

7. To teach sharing, snack time was present at the end of all sessions were each child was asked to share a piece of given snack to each other and eat once all of the get their share.

8. At last, children were taught to say “bye-bye “to each others, parents and therapists by their names.

Each of the group session would last for one hour including 7 to 8 activities from the above mentioned categories with two minutes breaks between each activity. After 8 months of group therapy children are now able to

• Greet each other without prompt
• Recognize the absence of other child
• Enjoy the presence of other kids and show emotional attachment
• Show tolerance to touch better than before
• Understand turn taking and able to wait for others turn without prompt
• Initiate activities like rhymes action imitation etc
• Verbally use “give me” , “take it”, “thank you” and “welcome” appropriately without prompt
• Point out when others did not wait or take turn appropriately
• Share and eat without prompt
• Listen and follow instruction and learn simple new games

The future goals of the group session would be to improve verbal communication, to introduce concepts of competition, winning and losing, to improve listening skills and to develop age appropriate play skills.